this complements the significance. The effect size is the magnitude of the result, which allows us to provide an estimate of the scope of our findings. In statistics, effect size Jordan Email Address refers to a way of quantifying the size of the difference between two groups. It is relatively easy to calculate and understand, and it can also be applied to any outcome measured in the social sciences. This is especially valuable when quantifying the effectiveness of an intervention, relative to some comparison. Jordan Email Address How big is the effect? In this sense, it is important to contextualize the effect size according to some reference, for example, previous scientific results. In addition, they must not be arbitrary, but must come from the scale of measurement with which we are working. There are 3 strategies that can help in the correct interpretation Jordan Email Address of the effect size, called the three Cs: the context,

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the contribution Cohen’s criterion Depending on the context , a Jordan Email Address small effect can be significant, for example: if it triggers large consequences or responses, if small effects can accumulate and produce large effects, among others. The other element is to evaluate its Jordan Email Address contribution to knowledge , that is, if the observed effect differs from what other researchers have found and if so, by how much; For this, it is necessary to compare the existing bibliography with our results and provide alternative explanations for our findings. Jordan Email Address, the Cohen criterion must be taken into account , which establishes 3 cut-off points to interpret the effect size according to the values ​​of the statistic, specifically for the « d»Jordan Email Address Cohen. However, these cuts depend on the statistic used,

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for which it is necessary to consult the specificities of each Jordan Email Address effect size meter to make its interpretation, which is used in most of them: small effect, medium effect, large effect , as we can see in the following table: In this regard, the APA style manual v7 (American Psychological Association Publication Manual 7th Edition) proposes to conform to the JARS standards (Jordan Email Address Quantitative Design Reporting Standards, JARS, https://apastyle.apa.org/jars/ ), where it is specified that Whenever possible, “ the estimated effect size and the confidence intervals of each inference test performed ” should be reported. In fact, Jordan Email Address APA researchers have identified that not reporting the effect size is one of the 7

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